What Is Infectious Disease Surveillance?

Developments in infectious disease surveillanceDevelopments in infectious disease surveillance Dr. Jeff Zimmerman, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Iowa State University, outlines developments in infectious disease surveillance. Dr. Zimmerman highlights how data is being collected and analyzed to better understand "what is happening" in disease detection (aka surveillance). Dr. Zimmerman concludes with recommendations for on farm oral fluid surveillance. [video].

What Is HP-PRRSV?

Pathogenesis and control of Chinese highly pathogenic Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRSV)Pathogenesis and control of Chinese highly pathogenic Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRSV) Dr. Hanchun Yang, China Agricultural University, reviews the research of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (HP-PRRSV) in China. Several key take aways: HP-PRRSV has stronger ability of suppressing cell-mediated immunity of pigs & HP-PRRSV infection causes severe lung lesions and expanded tissue lesions of pigs [video].

Swine, Data, and Informatics

Big data and models: Are they really useful in disease management?Big data and models: Are they really useful in disease management? Dr. Jim Lowe, University of Illinois, looks at big data and asks if they are really useful in animal health. Dr. Lowe suggests that animal agriculture is a very complicated and confusing set of systems with variations in many sub-areas, for example biological, mechanical, and human behavior. Dr. Lowe shares how animal agriculture has lots of data and how data can be collected in a systematic fashion to help improve animal health [video].

Best Practices of Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Control

Building on the best practices of Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) ControlBuilding on the best practices of Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Control In this panel discussion from the 2016 North American PRRS Symposium, researchers and veterinarians address audience questions about the best practices of porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) control. Panel members include Dr. PH Rathkjen, Boehringer Ingelheim; Dr. Roger Main, Iowa State University; Dr. Mike Roof, Boehringer Ingelheim; and Dr. Daniel Linhares, Iowa State University, Swine Health and Productivity [video].

The Microbiome In Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome

The role of the microbiome in Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)The role of the microbiome in Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Dr. Megan Niederwerder, Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, shares the role of the microbiome in PRRS, possibly as an alternative tool to improve the disease response in pigs. Dr. Niederwerder states the microbiome may be used as an alternative tool and novel intervention strategy for management of infectious disease in swine [video].

Host Genetics Of Resistance To Porcine Diseases

Update on the host genetics of resistance to porcine diseasesUpdate on the host genetics of resistance to porcine diseases Dr. Jack Dekkers, Animal Breeding and Genetics, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, gives an update on the host genetics of resistance to porcine diseases. Dr. Dekkers outlines the experimental trials he is working on that have co-infection of nursery pigs: PRRS + PCV2 (incl. PRRS vaccination) [video].

Advantages Of Metagenomic Sequencing

Metagenomic Sequencing for Virus Discovery and CharacterizationMetagenomic Sequencing for Virus Discovery and Characterization Dr. Ben Hause, Kansas State University, shares information on using metagenomic sequencing for virus discovery and characterization. Dr. Hause points out some of the advantages of metagenomic sequencing over Sanger Sequencing and what data is made available from metagenomic sequencing. Dr. Hause talks about how metagenomic sequencing helps with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSv) research [video].

The State Of Pork Today

Swine Industry Expectations, Innovations & TransformationsSwine Industry Expectations, Innovations & Transformations In this panel of swine experts, questions are discussed about handling disease emergencies at a national level, who are the trusted sources of information about the food supply, and the public perceptions of agriculture and how to respond.

Moderator Neil Dierks, CEO National Pork Producers Council, and panelists Dr. Tom Burkgren, Executive Director, American Association of Swine Veterinarians; Jan Hueber, General Manager and Co-Owner, Great Plains Management; and Bob Ruth, President, Country View Family Farms [video].

Using Complexity Theory To Understand Swine Vaccine Responses

 The Importance of Tissue-Level ActivityThe Chaos of Vaccine Responses: The Importance of Tissue-Level Activity Dr. David Hurley, Department of Large Animal Medicine, University of Georgia, dives into the science and physiology of tissue level activity and using Chaos Theory (or Complexity Theory if you prefer) to understand vaccine responses. This presentation shares detailed illustrations that explain tissue level events (their duration and strength plus their diversity).

One key takeaway is vaccines are able to protect target tissues other than the vaccine site because once ordered and produced in effective quantity and for the right challenge, the products will enter all body tissues expressing damage and danger. [video].

How Outbreak Investigations Help Reduce PRRSv Outbreaks

A Systematic Approach to PRRS Outbreak InvestigationsSystematic Approaches To PRRSv Outbreak Reductions Kimberlee Gerardy, Veterinary Diagnostic Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, details the actions to a systematic approach to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) outbreak investigations. Ms. Gerardy points out the goals of an investigation is understand when farm operations can return to base line production faster after an outbreak and then to keep PRRSv out. Ms. Gerardy states that keeping PRRSv is hard and shares outbreak investigation research that aims to help reduce outbreaks [video].

How Are Compatible Antigens for Swine Vaccines Created?

Utilization of Modern Scientific Technologies to Produce Compatible Antigens for Swine VaccinesProducing Compatible Antigens for Swine Vaccines Dr. Jeff Galvin, Zoetis, presents on utilizing modern scientific technologies to produce compatible antigens for swine vaccines. Dr. Galvin highlights the path to finding vaccines that fit the need to protect against both porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and mycoplasma hyopneumoniae [video].

Developing Swine Vaccine Licenses

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv) Vaccine, Path to Conditional LicensePath to Conditional License Dr. Meggan Bandrick, Clinical Research Veterinarian, Zoetis; and Postdoctoral Veterinary Research Scientist, USDA-National Animal Disease Center, talks about how a conditional license for a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) vaccine was developed. Dr. Bandrick shares the studies that were designed and the steps needed to develop data to support the license. Dr. Bandrick concludes with information on developing a fully licensed PEDv vaccine [video].

How Is Your Biosurveillance?

Evolution of BiosurveillanceEvolution of Biosurveillance Drs. Jeff Zimmerman & Rodger Main, Iowa State University, look at the evolution of biosurveillance. Drs. Zimmerman & Main both state there needs to be data to help support multiple types of surveillance. Today the swine ecosystem has an unprecedented opportunity to create effective surveillance systems [video].

Can DNA Shuffling Offer Path To PRRSv Vaccine?

Designing PRRSV Vaccines for Heterologous ProtectionDesigning PRRSV Vaccines for Heterologous Protection Dr. X.J. Meng, VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, looks at designing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSv) vaccine for heterologous protection. Dr. Meng states that PRRS remains a major problem to the global swine industry. Dr. Meng also mentions there is an emergence of new and more virulent PRRSv strains, like “porcine high fever disease” caused by a highly pathogenic PRRSv. A conclusion from developing a PRRSv vaccine: DNA shuffling offers an opportunity for rational design of PRRSv MLV vaccines that confer heterologous protection [video].

Using Genomics To Identify Genes Resistant To PRRS

Genetics of Host Resistance to PRRS and PCV2Genetics of Host Resistance to PRRS and PCV2 Dr. Jack Dekkers, Iowa State University, presents information around the genetics of host resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSv) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2). Dr. Dekkers presents data and research to use genomics to identify genes / genomic regions associated with resistance / susceptibility to PRRS virus infection. Some take aways: Vaccination-co-infection design is good model for PCVAD; and PRRS and PCV2b viremia controlled by different genomic regions with versus without vaccination [video].

PRRSv Resistant Pigs Are Coming

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Resistant PigsPorcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Resistant Pigs One specific swine disease, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv), is costing North American and European swine producers $6 million dollars a day (US). Besides being an economic issues, PRRSv is an animal welfare issue. Dr. Randy Prather, University of Missouri, shares new swine genetics research he's involved, in focused on identifying the genes that allows for pigs to be resistant to PRRSv [video][slides].

PRRS Historical Perspective and Area Regional Control

Dr. Joe Connor - Historical Perspective of PRRS Area Regional Control (PRRS ARC)Past PRRS ARC Actions Help Us Learn For Future Dr. Joe Connor, Carthage Vet Service, shares historical perspectives of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) and the area regional control (ARC) lessons learned to date. Dr. Connor concludes with some suggestions on directions veterinarians, farm staff & management, and related industry partners should take: communicate more; continue to build out information and data resources to help detect, monitor, and act; and be vigilant on biosecurity.

How Ready Are We For Another Disease Outbreak?

Surveillance in Swine IndustryQuicker Detection Needed Dr. Jeff Zimmerman, Iowa State University, asks "Are we ready for the next emergent disease?". While the swine industry is extremely efficient, Dr. Zimmerman believes there are vulnerabilities to the admission of diseases.

CRISPR Bacon

The Use of Transgenic Pigs in PRRSV ResearchTransgenic Pigs in PRRSV Research Dr. Randy Prather, University of Missouri, talks about the idea of genetic engineering of pigs for PRRSV resistance. Dr. Prather shows the approaches to the development of the SIGLEC1 pigs that uses Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) to make CRISPR Bacon. Dr. Prather says some in vitro resistance to PRRSv infection has been identified but that challenge studies need to be done.

PRRSV Pathogenesis and Immunity

Analysis of PRRSV Pathogenesis and Immunity at the Herd LevelPRRSV at Herd Level Dr. Bob Rowland, Kansas State University, talks about the analysis of PRRSV immunity at the herd level. Dr. Rowland highlights the system of PRRSV within a nursery and how persistent it is. Dr. Rowland also provides background on the challenges to developing vaccines to PRRSV. In conclusion, Dr. Rowland says neutralizing antibodies participates in the control and clearance of PRRSV and that not all neutralizing antibodies are equal, responses can be divided into distinct groups.

Deltacoronavirus

Porcine Deltacoronavirus - Koch's Postulates FulfilledKoch’s Postulates Fulfilled Dr. Dick Hesse, Kansas State University, shares the background of the discovery of the deltacoronavirus. While not a prominent as PEDv, deltacoronavirus is a pathogen and is out there, having been reported in at least 22 US states with continued reports being filled. Dr. Hesse says there still are many gaps in the understanding of deltacoronavirus, including biological and physical transmission.

Response to PRRS

Genetics of Host Response to PRRSGenetics of Pigs Dr. Jack Dekkers, Iowa State University, asks the question "Can the genetics of host pig be used to as part of an integrated strategy to control PRRS?" Dr. Dekkers outlines the current research and what approaches are being developed. Genetic selection for improved host response to PRRSv appears possible and can be an important component in the fight against PRRS.

101 Uses for PRRSV Infectious cDNA Clones

Reverse Genetics: 101 Uses for PRRSV Infectious cDNA ClonesWhat Is Reverse Genetics In PRRSV? Dr. Jay Calvert, Zoetis, talks about reverse genetics and how that is applied to understanding PRRS and PRRSV infectious cDNA clones. Dr. Calvert provides background on the science and tools that are applied to reverse genetics. Dr. Calvert closes with suggestions on how infectious clones can be used in the future.

Aiming to Reclaim Lost 10%

Not All PRRSV Antibodies are Created EqualResearch Mind Set on PRRS Dr. Bob Rowland, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, offers his view that there will never be a magic bullet to conquer PRRS. Instead he has set forth to figure out how to claim back more pigs from the 10%+ lost production pigs PRRS claims.

Does PRRS Load-Close-Expose Work?

What Have We Learned Regarding the Impact of MLV or LVI in the L-C-E Protocol for Breeding Herd Stabilization?Looking At Swine Farm Data Dr. Daniel Linhares, PIC/Agroceres, provides some perspectives on what has been learned regarding the impact of modified live virus (MLV) or live virus inocula (LVI) in the load-close-expose (L-C-E) protocol for breeding herd stabilization. Dr. Linhares shares research metrics and how processes have changed as a result.

Were Early Indicators of PEDV Available?

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Is Here - Ready or NotPEDV is Here, Work Through It Dr. Dick Hesse, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, makes a point of emphasizing that "Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Is Here - Ready or Not". PEDV, Dr. Hesse thinks, is a disease for which we had lots of warning but pretty much ignored it. Dr. Hesse describes research that is being run to better understand PEDV, how to approach detecting and reducing its impact. Dr. Hesse summarizes how PEDV spreads and what approaches to vaccine development is being done.

Example of PRRS Control at The Maschhoffs

PRRS Control Procedures WorkControl Procedures Work Dr. Clayton Johnson, The Maschhoffs, shares how they have applied porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) control protocols. Dr. Johnson highlights the measurements and processes used on a regular basis to help sustain the health of their herds.

Procedures Are Key to PRRS Management

Development of a PRRS Outbreak Investigations ProgramBuilding Your Biosecurity Dr. Derald Holtkamp, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, looks at the development of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreak investigations. One of the key messages is that biosecurity is a must maintain program in operations. He talks about tactics how to implement and sustain biosecurity.

PRRS in the Air

PRRS and Field Applicable PRRS Control ResearchLearning About Airborne PRRS Dr. Scott Dee, Pipestone Veterinary Clinic, provides a status of porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and field applicable PRRS control research. Dr. Dee discusses the challenges of airborne PRRS to filtered sow farms. He also looks that strategies that can be applied to reduce the airborne risks.

What Are New PRRS Vaccine Research Findings?

Interferon-Alpha Responses Following PRRS Vaccination and ChallengePRRS Vaccine Research Dr. Jay Calvert, Zoetis, present data on interferon-alpha responses following a porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccination. Dr. Calvert shares that vaccination of suckling pigs as early as one day old can result in vaccine replication and induction of moderate amount of interferon-alpha.

What Feed Changes Can do to Control PRRS?

Dr. Thomas Burkey - Nutritional Management of PRRSControlling Feed to Control PRRS? Dr. Thomas Burkey, University of Nebraska, shares information on two swine nutrition & porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) related research and what they discovered. Dr. Burkey offers actions operations can be taken with nutrition as it relates to PRRS sick pigs.