Transgenic Pigs in PRRSV Research Dr. Randy Prather, University of Missouri, talks about the idea of genetic engineering of pigs for PRRSV resistance. Dr. Prather shows the approaches to the development of the SIGLEC1 pigs that uses Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) to make CRISPR Bacon. Dr. Prather says some in vitro resistance to PRRSv infection has been identified but that challenge studies need to be done.
PRRSV at Herd Level Dr. Bob Rowland, Kansas State University, talks about the analysis of PRRSV immunity at the herd level. Dr. Rowland highlights the system of PRRSV within a nursery and how persistent it is. Dr. Rowland also provides background on the challenges to developing vaccines to PRRSV. In conclusion, Dr. Rowland says neutralizing antibodies participates in the control and clearance of PRRSV and that not all neutralizing antibodies are equal, responses can be divided into distinct groups.
Koch’s Postulates Fulfilled Dr. Dick Hesse, Kansas State University, shares the background of the discovery of the deltacoronavirus. While not a prominent as PEDv, deltacoronavirus is a pathogen and is out there, having been reported in at least 22 US states with continued reports being filled. Dr. Hesse says there still are many gaps in the understanding of deltacoronavirus, including biological and physical transmission.
Genetics of Pigs Dr. Jack Dekkers, Iowa State University, asks the question "Can the genetics of host pig be used to as part of an integrated strategy to control PRRS?" Dr. Dekkers outlines the current research and what approaches are being developed. Genetic selection for improved host response to PRRSv appears possible and can be an important component in the fight against PRRS.
What Is Reverse Genetics In PRRSV? Dr. Jay Calvert, Zoetis, talks about reverse genetics and how that is applied to understanding PRRS and PRRSV infectious cDNA clones. Dr. Calvert provides background on the science and tools that are applied to reverse genetics. Dr. Calvert closes with suggestions on how infectious clones can be used in the future.
Building Global Solutions Dr. Tom Chiller, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, opens his presentation with a quote from Dr. Tom Friedan, CDC Director, that brings focus to antimicrobial resistance: “We are all connected by the food we eat, the water we drink, and the air we breathe.” Dr. Chiller emphasizes that antimicrobial resistance is a global problem and needs global solutions. These solutions need continual communication, consistent monitoring and reporting, and response teams to take action.
Companion Animals Use Antibiotics Too Dr. Jeff Bender, Chair for the AVMA Task Force for Antimicrobial Stewardship in companion Animal Practice, provides an overview of antimicrobial resistance in companion animals and what kinds of stewardship approaches are being implemented. Dr. Bender suggests that clinicians need to be aware and encourage good antimicrobial stewardship practices.
Strategy Involves Collaboration Dr. William Flynn, Deputy Director for Science Policy, Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine, provides an update on the US FDA's strategy on the use of important antibiotics in food producing animals and its effect on FDA Guidance #213. Dr. Flynn mentions that all uses of antibiotics are contributing to resistance issues and that any conversation and solution set must take this wide use into consideration. Collaborative approaches are going be much more effective if everyone is at the table and working in the same direction.
Data Analysis Dr. William Flynn, Deputy Director for Science Policy, Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine, highlights the issues of data collection on antimicrobial resistance and drug stewardship programs. Dr. Flynn shares how the National Institute of Biological and Mathematical Synthesis (NIMBioS) is helping model and analyze approaches to antimicrobial use and resistance. Dr. Flynn says collecting additional information to link shifts in on-farm antimicrobial use practices with antimicrobial resistance data is a high priority.